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Relative Pitch is the ability to recognize intervals.  I paid 250$ for this voice training method.  I'm giving it to you for free.   
Solfege syllables
were invented around 1300BC.  They were standardized 300 years ago.  They help you
reference the intervals.   If you're confused, see theory or skip to the lessons.           

solfege syllables

Do can be any note. 
The progression from Do to Do is called the pathway.

Going down:                                       
Re  Do   =   2,  1                             
Mi  Re  Do  =   3,  2,  1                             
Fa  Mi  Re  Do  =  4,  3,  2,  1                     

Going up:
Sol  La  Ti  Do  =   5,  6,  7,  1  
la ti do  =  6,  7,  1
ti do  =  7,  1

do re mi guitar chords

See chord building theory    

do re mi guitar scales

See modes theory  

Intervals & Chords

Sing the syllables as you listen to the free voice and ear training tool.

Sing with a mic and amp for best results.  Add an inline tuner and stay in key.

2 ways to use solfege syllables. 
One way uses Do to represent the note C.  A second method uses Do as the root of any scale.  Do can be any note.  The following exercises use this method.

Major chord exercises:

do re mi major chord

Click   play   in the tool to hear it again.  Otherwise click the scale, chord or interval name. 

Listen and sing along
Major scale path up.   
Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
Major Ionian path down.    
Do Ti La Sol Fa Mi Re Do
Up and down      (faster)    (fastest)

Sing with a mic and amp for best results.  Even better, add an inline tuner and stay in key.

 Major chord up   Do Mi Sol Do
Major chord down    Sol Mi Do Do

Guess the intervals 
  3, 5 and octave sound the most similar.  Be patient.  You're building a framework for your ears.

3-5 up     Try to sing from Do up to the interval.   Hard
Guess 3-5 down      Try to sing from the interval down to Do.   Hard        Guess 3-5 together   Hard

If you guess wrong, thats great!  Now you know which interval it is.  Re-listen to the same one and try to sing the path.  Do this several times.  Don't worry about being perfect before moving on, this process takes a while.  This is the starting point. 3, 5, and octave are hard.  They sound very similar.

Guess 3-octave up        3-octave down        together  
Guess 5-octave up        5-octave down        together   Hard
Guess 3-5-octave up      Try to sing the path.
Guess 3-5-octave down    
Try to sing the path.   Hard       Guess together   Very hardThese 3 intervals are the most similar.

Practice a little bit every day.  Let it sink in gradually.  Each interval has a shade of sound.  Don't worry about being perfect, you'll get better. 

Major 7 chord

Add 7 or Ti

major 7th solfege

Listen and sing along

Major Ionian up.   Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
Ionian down.    Do Ti La Sol Fa Mi Re Do
up and down   (faster)   (fastest)

Major 7th chord up.  Do Mi Sol Ti Do                                               
Major 7 chord down.  Ti Sol Mi Do Do

3-7 up    Sing the path from Do up to the interval. 
3-7 down    Sing from the interval down to Do         3-7 together                     

5-7 up        5-7 down        5-7 together
7, octave up        7, octave down        together

3-5-7 up     Sing from Do up to the interval.  Do this for every exercise.                                    
3-5-7 down     Sing from the interval down to Do.   Hard   Do this for every exercise.     Guess together    

3-5-7-octave up        3-5-7-octave down 
Hard         together  Hard (7 is easy)

Guess Major chord - Major 7 chord            

Dominant 7 chord: 

Add b7 or Tay

dominant 7 do re mi

Mixolydian scale up   Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Tay Do
Mixolydian scale down      Do Tay La Sol Fa Mi Re Do
Up and down   (faster)   (fastest)

Dom 7 chord up     Do Mi Sol Tay Do                                              
Dom 7 chord down     Tay Sol Mi Do Do

3-b7 up        3-b7 down        3-b7 together
5-b7 up        5-b7 down        5-b7 together
b7-octave up        b7-octave down        b7-octave together
3, 5, b7 up.         3, 5, b7 down        together
3, 5, b7, octave up        3, 5, b7, octave down        together

Dom7 chord - Major chord   Hard   (up)    (down)  
Dom7 chord - Major 7 chord   Hard     (up)    (down)    (up fast)    (down fast)    (up fastest)    (down fastest)
Dom 7 chord - Major 7 chord - Major chord   Very Hard    (up)    (down)    (up fast)    (down fast)   

This is a warm up, these will be reviewed again.

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Minor chord

minor chord do re mi

Aeolian scale up.    Do Re May Fa Sol Lay Tay Do
Aeolian scale down.   Do Tay Lay Sol Fa May Re Do
Up and down   (faster)   (fastest

minor chord up     Do May Sol Do
minor chord down     Sol May Do Do

b3-5 up        b3-5 down        b3-5 together
b3-octave up        b3-octave down        b3 octave together
5-octave up        5-octave down        together  
5-b6 up         5-b6 down        5-b6 together
b3-5-octave up        b3-5-octave down        together

Major chord - minor chord

minor 7 chord

minor 7 do re mi

Aeolian up      Do Re May Fa Sol Lay Tay Do
Aeolian down    Do Tay Lay Sol Fa May Re Do
Up and down  (faster)  (fastest)

minor 7 chord up       Do May Sol Tay  Do
minor 7 chord down    Tay Sol May Do Do

b3-b7 up        b3-b7 down        b3-b7 together
5-b7 up        5-b7 down        5-b7 together
b7-octave up        b7-octave down        b7 octave together
5-b6 up         5-b6 down        5-b6 together

minor chord - minor 7 chord      Hard    (up)   (down)   (up fastest)   (down fastest)

Major & minor tonality

Those exercises forced the Major and minor sounds into your head.  These sounds follow "patterns" that listeners expect to hear in a song.

Example:  The Dom7 chord is the 5th chord in a Major key.  It  provides a strong cadence (need for movement or resolution) that carries back to the tonic, root or 1 note. By training yourself to hear Major chords with a b7 (Dom 7) you prepare yourself for improvising and jams.  The natural resolutions will become habit. 

Listeners sense that a 7 resolves to a 1.  They've been listening to music their whole life.  They instinctively understand.  If confused, see theory.

The same concepts apply for different minor chords.  The ability to hear the difference between Major and minor is the most important ear training skill.  Everything else is secondary.

Warm up:

3-b3 up     3-b3 down     3-b3 together   (slower) 
Major chord or minor chord?
Major or minor scale?   (slower)  (faster)  (faster)   (fastest)

Identify minor:

Guess which chord is minor.  The most important guess is Major or minor, even if it takes multiple tries.  

Minor chord - Major chord - Dom 7 - Major 7     (faster)
Minor chord - Minor 7 - Major chord - Dom 7 - Major 7    (faster) 

Major scale (Ionian) - Dom 7 scale (Mixolydian) - Lydian scale (Major #4) - minor scale     (slower)    (faster)   (faster)    (fastest)

Identify Major:

Guess which chord is Major.  The most important guess is Major or minor, even if it takes multiple tries. 

Major chord - minor chord - minor 7 - minor Major 7    (faster)
Major chord - Major 7 - minor chord - minor 7 - minor Major 7
Major chord - Major 7 - Dom 7 - minor chord - minor 7 - minor Major 7

Identify Maj7 or Dom7 extension

b7-7 up         b7-7 down        b7-7 together
b7-7-octave up        b7-7-octave-down        b7-7-octave together
Maj7 or Dom7           (up)     (down)    (up fast)    (down fast)
Maj7 scale (Ionian) or Dom7 scale (Mixolydian)        (slower)    (faster)    (faster)    (fastest)

Identify minor7 extension

6-b7-7 up      6-b7-7 down      6-b7-7 together
minor 7 chord (b7) or minor Maj7 (7) up    (down)   (together)

minor Aeolian scale (b7) or Harmonic minor scale (7)     (slower)    (faster)    (faster)    (fastest)
minor Aeolian scale (b7) or Melodic minor scale (7 going up, b7 going down)   (slower)   (faster)   (faster)   (fastest)

Interval inversions  They're the same distance from the root note, up or down.
Select any group below.
b2 and 7          2 and b7         b3 and 6          3 and b6         4 and 5          

the tri-tone It's made from 2 minor 3rd intervals up or down.  It has no inversion, OR It is it's own inversion.

More chords

I'll add more chord and mode exercises to this system.  For now, examine some of the popular chord shapes.
Some we've already covered.

Major 6 chord

Add 6 or La

major 6th solfege chord do re mi

Major scale path upDo Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
Major scale path downDo Ti La Sol Fa Mi Re Do

Up and down   (faster)   (fastest)

3-6 up        3-6 down     
3-6 together

5-6 up         5-6 down        5-6 together

6-octave up        6-octave down        Guess 6-octave together

3-5-6 up.  Try to sing the path up.                                           
3-5-6 down  Try singing down from the interval.
3-5-6 together

3, 5, 6, octave up.
3, 5, 6, octave down.

Make your own

You might be in a hurry to get specific exercises made.  Here's the way to do it.

solfege id chart for toolChord Exercise

Open this tool. Scroll down. 
Click Chord Ear Training.
Set the speed (normal to slowest)
Set play mode on ascending or descending harmonic (or both).
Set the range according to your vocal range. 
Set it to the chord type of your choice. 
Play the chords and sing along.  Next,

Interval Exercise

Open this tool again. Scroll down. 
Click Interval Ear Training.
Set speed between "normal and slowest." 
Set play mode to ascending harmonic or descending harmonic (or both).
Set the range according to your vocal range. 
Set the intervals to match your chosen chord. 

Scale Exercise

Open this tool. Scroll down. 
Click Scale Ear Training.
Set the speed (normal to slowest)
Set play mode on ascending or descending harmonic (or both).
Set the range according to your vocal range. 
Set it to the scale of your choice. 
Play the scale and sing along.  Use the solfege syllables. 

I'll be making complete exercise sets using these tools very soon (Today is 2/16/16)

chord syllables

See Theory   (Chord Building    Major / minor    Advanced Chord Theory)

My son will learn on the piano the old way; “Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do…That’s how I write melody for chord changes…That’s how I hear my line…  If you teach your child the right vocabulary, he’s on his way to speaking the universal language…Universal language is deeper than the surface.   That way when you play cowboy music, even the Japanese will be doing a hillbilly dance.”
        -Carlos Santana

Exercise 1:  Personality   

These exercises are from the expensive program I bought.  Every intervals has a "personality" that's recognizable.  
This exercise is already presented above in the links. 

Play and sing the following in the key of C:     

Ascending                                      Descending
Do Re Me Fa Sol La Ti Do              Do Ti La So Fa Mi Re Do

Now play Ti  (7)
Ti wants to move to Do (7 to 1), did you hear it?         Relative Tension      Diatonic Chromatic
Every interval has a personality you can recognize.  
Exercise 1 takes you back to ‘do’ using the the shortest diatonic path. 
This process quickly reveals the personality of the notes.

Establish C major in your ear.   (play C, F, and G7 chords)  (1, 4, 5dom7)  

Play any note in C major  
Play and sing your way back to ‘C’ using the shortest pathway up or down.
If you play A (interval 6  or La)     the path is La, Ti, Do           (6, 7, 1)  
If you play F (interval 4 or Fa)     the path is Fa, Mi, Re, Do    (4, 3, 2, 1)  

Sing the syllables.  The paths will become recognizable.  
Try a different key

Try different scales or modes.  
Play the appropriate 1, 4, 5dom7 chords for that mode or scale.  
Some modes are not easily defined by 1, 4, 5dom7 chords.  See defining chord progressions for ideas.

Exercise 2:  The Pathways

2-A   Also covered above

Play and sing the pathways.  
Resolve to Do using the shortest path. 

When they're familiar, play and sing them in random order several minutes a day.  Play and sing in tune. Don’t confuse yourself.  Challenges come later.

do                   (1)
re do               (2, 1)
mi re do          (3, 2, 1)
fa mi re do      (4, 3, 2, 1)
sol la ti do       (5, 6, 7, 1)
la ti do             (6, 7, 1)
ti do                 (7, 1)

Try a different key signature.

Record 20 minutes of random pathways (in C major)
Play any note, hold it, and resolve to Do using the shortest path.
Play a quick C cadence between each example.  (C, F, G7) 

Listen to the recording and identify the note before the pathway is played back.
Eventually, when you hear a diatonic note, you'll hear the syllable. 

Now record in a different key and use the same process.

Exercise 3:  Different Keys

1. To hear note personalities and assign syllables in all keys.
2. To identify new keys (tonal centers) as the music modulates (changes key).

Keyboards:  use the transpose button to change key.   See piano.  
Guitarists:    change fret position.

Sing the major scale after each modulation.
Sing the short pathways after each modulation

do                   (1)
re do               (2, 1)
mi re do          (3, 2, 1)
fa mi re do      (4, 3, 2, 1)
sol la ti do       (5, 6, 7, 1)
la ti do             (6, 7, 1)
ti do                 (7, 1)

Modulation formulas (up and down):       (keyboard transpose button  +  - )  (Guitar fret position +  - )    
b2                  (+1  -1)
2nd                (+2  -2)
minor 3rd      (+3  -3)
Major 3rd      (+4  -4)
4th                 (+5  -5)
b5                  (+6  -6)

5th                 (+7  -7)
b6                   (+8  -8)
6                     (+9  -9)
b7                   (+10  -10)
7                     (+11  -11)

Exercise 4:  Changing Relationships         

The same note changes it's relationship to the key.  

1. To hear tone relationships as they change harmonic functions (Do changes to Re, to Mi, etc.).
2. To imagine the line before the key is established.  (thinking ahead).

Play and sing a note.   
The first time, it’s Do.
The second time, it’s Re
The third time it’s Mi, and so on. 
Each time, play and sing the pathway back to Do.

Piano diagrams
Guitar diagrams
Ear charts

Go slow and "hear" each modulation before you continue.  
Play the 1, 4, 5 chords for the new key, (or play the scale) when needed.  
This helps you lead the music through the changes, as opposed to following the changes.

Pick a new key when your ready.  (Transpose button on keyboard.  Fret position on guitar).

Exercise 5 Multiple personalities

1. To identify multiple note personalities (diatonic and chromatic) without playing.

Establish the key of C major (play C, F, G7 chords). 
Close your eyes and play two random notes*.   
Sing the pathways back to Do. (one at a time, without replaying either note) 

If the note was chromatic, sing the chromatic syllable, and then "jump" back into the diatonic pathway up or down.
*piano-   any 2 white keys
*guitar-   tap two frets with your right hand.

Sing into a tuner for this one.  If you don't get it perfect, PLAY and sing them back.   Try any of the exercises without playing. Sing into a tuner to be sure.  A mic and amp helps a lot.  

Things to try

Transcribe songs, chords, melodies, solos, etc. with your instrument.

Transcribe without your instrument (use educated guesses).  Check your work with your instrument.   
If a pattern forms in your errors you know what to work on.

Sing scales. The major scale, natural minor, harmonic minor, pentatonic, blues, etc.

Sing intervals   

Sing chord arpeggios 

Sight singing.  Read along with sheet music while listening to a song you know.    

Transcribe rhythms.

Improvise melodies, solos, and riffs over chords.   (also a great way to make music)

Imagine a short melody, and try to play it on your instrument
I'll try to play Christmas carols and other simple melodies.

Record different types of chords and keep a list of which chord is which.  You can do it by key, or by chord type.
Play your recording and try to identify what the chords are, or the chords interval in the key.   

Take a college ear training course.    uggghh.  

Find ear training software programs on the internet.

Find a music teacher.   Any competent music teacher can teach you this.
I took these training ideas from the BEST free ear training site on the net.  They are solid.

Jam  Your friends will change chords, and you'll have to keep up.  Your hands will automatically find the right notes.

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